Day and Boarding; Grades 6-12

Navigation

Calendar

Mathematics

Graduation requirement: Three years of study, including Geometry and Algebra II

Students at Pennington can follow several possible interconnecting pathways in Mathematics. Honors-level courses allow for enrichment and extension in the curriculum, especially with regard to problem solving and proof. Some students choose to follow the traditional path to Calculus/AP Calculus. Other students, wishing to branch away from this pathway, may take Statistics. Students who have a strong interest in mathematics may take AP Computer Science and AP Statistics concurrently with Precalculus with Function Limits or AP Calculus.

Students who complete all courses offered in the mathematics curriculum at Pennington, or who demonstrate exceptional ability, may be given permission to enroll in mathematics courses offered at Princeton University.

Algebra I; Grade 9

Algebra I
Grade 9
1 credit
Algebra I introduces students formally to the fundamentals of mathematics through the study of systems of numbers, equations, and inequalities. Students are exposed to problem solving and real-world applications.

Geometry; Grades 9-10

Geometry*
Grades 9–10
1 credit
This course provides a thorough treatment of geometric concepts, introduced visually, analytically, and deductively. Students will learn axiomatic proof and recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics. Throughout the course, students are asked to make conjectures about figures and identify relationships between figures. They will also analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional figures. Constructions, computer labs, and hands-on activities are integral parts of this course.
* Prerequisite: Algebra I

Geometry Honors

Geometry Honors*
Grades 9–10
1 credit
This course is an advanced class that promotes critical thinking, proof, and problem solving. Geometric concepts are introduced visually, analytically, and deductively. Students will recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics. Throughout the course, students are asked to make conjectures about figures and identify relationships between figures. Constructions, computer labs, and hands-on activities are integral components of students’ coursework.
* Prerequisite: Algebra I and permission of the department

Algebra II; Grades 10-11

Algebra II*
Grades 10–11
1 credit

Algebra II is the continuation of the study of algebraic principles introduced in Algebra I. Emphasis is placed on the concept of functions and their applications. Linear, quadratic, polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions are studied including symbolic, graphical, and numerical representations. Students employ technology tools to explore concepts and enhance problem-solving skills.
*Prerequisite: Algebra I and Geometry

Algebra II with Trigonometry; Grades 9-11

Algebra II with Trigonometry*
Grades 9–11
1 credit
This course moves at a faster pace than Algebra II while covering all topics from the Algebra II course described above. Many topics will be covered in greater depth than in the Algebra II course, and a substantial treatment of trigonometry will be incorporated. This course, coupled with Precalculus with Function Limits the following year, prepares students to take Calculus.
*Prerequisite: Algebra I and Geometry and permission of the department

Algebra II Honors; Grades 9–11

Algebra II Honors*
Grades 9–11
1 credit

This honors course is for highly motivated students with solid algebraic fundamentals and a demonstrated enthusiasm for mathematics. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of a variety of algebraic and trigonometric functions and their applications in real-world modeling. Students who complete this course with distinction are prepared to take Precalculus Honors.
* Prerequisite: Algebra I and Geometry and permission of the department

Precalculus; 10–12

Precalculus Foundations*
Grades 10–12
1 credit

A technology-based approach allows students to develop problem-solving skills and reinforce algebraic understanding. Non-linear and trigonometric functions are considered in the context of modeling phenomenon. Students explore common themes of all functions including transformations and inverse relations.
* Prerequisite: Algebra II

Precalculus with Function Limits; Grades 10–12

Precalculus*
Grades 10–12
1 credit
This course includes a rigorous treatment of major families of functions: polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric, focusing on the core concepts of graphical analysis; solving equations and inequalities; inverse relationships; and proof. Analytical trigonometry, vectors, matrices to solve systems, and conic sections are major topics in the course.
*Prerequisite: Algebra II with Trigonometry or Algebra II Honors, and permission of the department

Precalculus Honors; Grades 10-12

Precalculus Honors*
Grades 10–12
1 credit
The honors precalculus course demands greater initiative and interest on the part of the students, who will be expected to apply their knowledge by independently and collaboratively solving challenging problems on regular assignments and presenting their solutions. Students will explore the properties of polynomial, power, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions through graphical and algebraic analysis. Also covered will be vectors, lines and planes in 3D, and solving systems using matrices. The course will include discrete mathematics and an introduction to limits.
*Prerequisite: Algebra II with Trigonometry or Algebra II Honors, and permission of the department

Statistics; Grades 10-12

Statistics*
Grades 10–12
1 credit
This course is an introduction to the mathematical concepts of probability and statistics. Topics studied include sample spaces, independent events, graphic representation, mean, median, mode, variance, standard deviation, standard normal variable, confidence intervals, sampling, and hypothesis testing.
* Prerequisite: Algebra II

Calculus; Grades 10-12

Calculus*
Grades 10–12
1 credit
This course is an introduction to the basic concepts and techniques of differential and integral calculus. Graphing technology is used extensively to help develop an understanding of the material. Topics include derivatives and their applications, as well as the definite integral.
* Prerequisite: Precalculus with Function Limits or Precalculus Honors, and permission of the department

AP Calculus AB; Grades 10-12

AP Calculus AB*
Grades 10–12
1 credit
Calculus AB is designed for highly motivated students with significant maturity and independence. Topics of study include limits, derivatives and their applications, definite and indefinite integrals, and methods and applications of integration. Graphing calculators are used extensively.
* Prerequisite: Precalculus with Function Limits or Precalculus Honors, and permission of the department

AP Calculus BC; Grades 10-12

AP Calculus BC*
Grades 10–12
1 credit
This course covers all the material in Calculus AB. However, it differs in that it includes a significant number of additional topics, including further methods of integration, and thus is faster-paced and more challenging.
* Prerequisite: Precalculus Honors and permission of the department

AP Statistics; Grades 11-12

AP Statistics*
Grades 11–12
1 credit
This course is intended for junior or senior students. This is a problem-based course in which students learn to collect and analyze data using probability and statistical models. The course will involve technology and connections to many subject areas. Students may take AP Statistics and Precalculus concurrently.
* Prerequisite: Algebra II with Trigonometry or Algebra II Honors, and permission of the department

AP Computer Science A; Grades 11-12

AP Computer Science A*
Grades 11–12
1 credit
This is a college-level course that covers the key concepts of object-oriented programming (OOP) and prepares students to take the AP exam in the spring. While many days during the year are devoted to lectures, the majority of the course is devoted to labs. Students are given ample class time and close teacher interaction to work on substantial design and programming projects. Throughout the year, students are asked to design and write several small-to-medium-sized programs as well as two major pieces of software from scratch. In addition to the concepts of object-oriented programming, much attention is given the art of good programming design. Students are challenged not only to write software that works but also to write clean code: software that is efficient and easily understood and maintained. This class challenges students to create.
*Prerequisite: Algebra II Honors or Precalculus with Function Limits, and permission of the department

Software Engineering; Grade 11

Software Engineering*
Grade 11
.5 credit
In this course students will learn the programming skills to design and build software, as well as have multiple experiences applying the Software Design Cycle. The course will give students opportunities to develop important twenty-first-century skills like collaborating, breaking a system down into components, working effectively with experts, and learning how to complete a project on time through iterative development. The culminating project in the course will have students work to solve a problem of their own choosing.
*Prerequisite: Successful application to the Applied Science Certificate Program
Offered fall or spring semester